Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Ban the bags before its too late Essay

BAN THE BAG BEFORE ITS TOO LATE† is an article that was published in the Daily Chronicle on the 27th of May 2008. The article stresses the negative impact that plastic bags are having on the Australian Environment and that the Government needs to make an immediate change. The article is targeted towards the general public, particularly those who have an interest in the environment, animals and battling pollution. The heading of the article is in large, bold and in capital letters. This grabs the reader’s attention and before they have read through the article feel that the information they are about to read will be important. The words â€Å"before it’s too late† gives the reader a sense of urgency to read on and leaves them feeling that the topic may have an effect on their lives and makes them more susceptible to information provided. In an attempt to appeal to the reader’s sense of safety and health the writer mentions that this pollution is â€Å"clogging our landfills to the tune of 20,700 tonnes a year. Due to these confronting statistics fear is stuck into the reader and encourages them to agree with writer making the article more influential. Read more:  Heavy School Bags The statistics that the writer provides may manipulate readers into feeling as though the writer is superior. The knowledge that the writer is presenting in their expertise could then potentially intimidate and make the reader respect the writer. To enhance the emotional responses and have the audience in total agreement the writer also uses the expert opinion of the Chairman of Clean up Australia Ian Kiernan. According to the article, Kiernan stated a, along the lines of; â€Å"only a total ban on plastic bags would be effective in reducing the numbers being discarded and causing environmental damage. â€Å"Being exposed to the words of someone who had a lot of understanding on the subject makes it even harder to deny the message of the article. In conclusion the authors use of statistics, expert opinion and emotive language the writer persuades the reader into banning plastic bags and that it is the correct path to take in order to preserve our environment and to ban plastic bags.

Communicate in a Business Environment

1. Understand the purpose of planning communication1.1 Explain the benefits of knowing the purpose of communication The purpose of communication is to allow the exchange of information, ideas, concepts, emotions, thoughts and opinions. The benefit of knowing this is so you can use communication as a tool, it is needed to be able to learn, teach and explain things to others. We communicate in a Business Environment to maintain effective and efficient ways of working and to listen to and try to solve each others problems.1.2 Explain the reasons for knowing the audience to whom communications are presented By knowing who your audience is it is easier to adapt your communication appropriately. Your tone and format will differ depending on who is receiving the communication as will your body language, for example when talking amongst friends, you are likely to talk informally with more relaxed body language whereas when talking to a senior manager you would put more thought into what you were saying and the words you choose as well as standing up straight, smiling etc.The reasons we change the way we communicate to different audiences is to give off the right impression and to get what you want to say across appropriately, effectively and efficiently. 1.3 Explain the purpose of knowing the intended outcomes of communications Knowing the intended outcomes of communications helps inform you if the information you provided was satisfactory and up to the right standard or if they needed more from you.1.4 Describe different methods of communication and when to use them There are five different methods of communication; verbal, non verbal, informal, formal and body language.VerbalVerbal communication is the act of conveying thoughts, feelings and ideas through the use of speech. It is the most effective type of communication and should be used when an immediate response is needed, which can be sought face to face or over the phone. Verbal is also a preferred method when i nformation is confidential. Non-VerbalThis type of communication is one that does not involve speech. Examples of non-verbal communications are written, facial expressions, gestures and sign language. Written communication can be used to have a hard copy/record of an agreement or conversation. Facial expressions and gestures can be very helpful to portray your feelings and helps you determine if the person you are speaking to understands what you’re saying.InformalInformal communication can come in many forms, a face to face chat, phone call, text, e-mail, post it note or an informal meeting for a catch up. This is used day in day out amongst friends and colleagues. This is usually used when the people communicating know each other; an example of this would be starting an e-mail with â€Å"Hi ______† rather than â€Å"Dear Mr. _______†.FormalFormal communication is usually used when communicating with customers/clients depending on the relationship held with the m or when procedures and orders are being followed. This is, in most cases, the format used automatically when communicating in business with people you do not know.Body LanguageBody language is the most honest method of communication; it can be relied on by the hard of hearing or talking to help them get their point across and understand others. It helps people judge who they think is approachable and can assist when there is a language barrier.2. Understand how to communicate in writing2.1 Identify relevant sources of information that may be used when preparing written communication Sources of information can be classed as Primary, Secondary and Tertiary.PrimaryWhen information is primarily sourced it is gathered by a person directly in contact with the event or incident. These are the authentic facts that haven’t undergone any changes. Examples of these include: DiariesLetters E-mails Interviews SurveysSecondary A secondary source of information is interpreted or analysed data of the primary source. Examples of these include: Books Magazine and newspaper articles Commentaries TextbooksTertiary Tertiary sources consist of information which is a combination of primary and secondary sources. Examples of these include: Manuals Directories Fact books Bibliographies2.2 Describe the communication principles for using electronic forms of written communication in a business environment. Electronic forms of data or communication are e-mails, faxes etc. When choosing electronic communications for exchange of information, you should think carefully to decide which the best and most efficient method of communication is.2.3 Explain different styles and tones of language and situations when they may be used for written communications. Colloquial, casual, and formal writing are different styles of writing that have their own expectations and outcomes. The style of writing also depends on the purpose of what is intended to say, how it is intended to say, what the doc ument will be used  for and the audience.Colloquial LanguageColloquial is an informal, conversational style of writing. Casual language is something that we use to communicate with family and close friends. It uses informal words that we use normally on a daily basis.Formal LanguageFormal language is used in business communications. It depends on the words you use, the way you use and relates to your role. You need to be personally well presented and the language has formal words with proper syntax, good vocabulary and excellent grammar which are more important.2.4 Explain the reasons for selecting and using language that suits the purpose of written communication. The purpose of written communication is to contact people in a more professional way. See 1.4 under Formal.2.5 Describe the ways of organising, structuring and presenting written information so it meets the needs of different audiences. When organising, structuring and presenting written information we have to bear in m ind the following. Prepare all the documents for presentation depending on what has to be delivered. Keep documents in the correct order, so that the communication goes in a proper flow without any confusions and errors.While presenting, be clear in what you talk stating the objectives. Give an introduction on what you are going to present, why you are writing to them, why the audience is receiving the written communication. Present it step by step clearly using proper resources where needed. In the end, close it down making clear that all objectives were covered. Inform the audience what will happen next and what actions have to be implemented.2.6 Describe ways of checking for the accuracy of content in written information. Any written communication has to be free of spelling and grammatical errors. It also has to be in the right and professional format. So the following have to be checked or considered before the document is finalised to be sent out. Check the points written down: Whatever we write has to be accurate, otherwise it will have disastrous effects and can even ruin the reputation of the organisation, and the organisation can itself get into trouble. So all details have to be double checked for example dates, names, statistics, events, discussions, actions and other facts. If you are unsure of anything, make sure you check with knowledgeable or experienced people and update the written document.2. Spell check and Grammar check:Spell-check is an option available to easily correct typo errors. Sometimes it will not be 100% accurate, because if you had typed a word instead of another, then spell check will not be able to trace it. So it is always best to check through the document twice before sending it out.3. Use a Template:Usually every organisation has a different style for documents they produce. They will all be available as templates which one can use to easily input data. In case there isn’t a template available, you should research thr ough to find the correct style for the document that you produce depending on needs, department and organisation and follow the style guide to produce the document. As an organisation, documents have to be produced in a standard and professional format.4. Have someone else check your work:Another way to ensure accuracy is to have your document read by another reader. Sometimes when we read through our own work, minor or sometimes major errors can be hard to detect. Grammatical, punctuation and style errors can be picked up if the reader is an experienced person.2.7 Explain the purpose of accurate use of grammar, punctuation and spelling.The main purpose in the correct use of grammar, punctuation and spelling is ensuring the receiver of the information reads it the way it was intended. Addition to this when given a task to do, your employer expects you to do it perfectly. When a document has inaccuracies, readers tend to distrust everything, including the statistics, opinions, and fa cts. For progression in the company you need to ensure you carry out all tasks to a certain standard.2.8 Explain what is meant by plain English, and why it is used. Plain English is plain language used for communication that emphasise clarity and avoids technical language. Plain English is used so that what you try to communicate is easily understood by everyone and is appropriate to their reading skills and knowledge.2.9 Explain the purpose of proofreading and checking written work. Any work that is written has to be proofread and checked especially if it is important written work. The purpose of doing so is to avoid errors and appearing unprofessional. See 2.6 for the purpose of checking work.2.10 Explain the purpose of recognising work that is important and work that is urgent. Importance and urgency are two different things. When something is urgent, you rush to do it. When something is important, you prioritise it. Urgent tasks are not necessarily complicated, so I try to finis h off the urgent ones quickly and move on to the important ones. Important tasks should be dealt with carefully and have time put into them and be thoroughly checked on completion.2.11 Describe organisational procedures for saving and filing written communications. Every organisation has its own policies and procedures for saving and filing documents. Documents with similar information are filed together for ease of accessibility when necessary. Documents that need to be shared with other departments and other staff are always stored on shared drives. You should be very particular about the storage and destroying of confidential information. Records may be kept as paper files, or electronically in shared drives, databases, or document management systems.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Organization behavior Essay

1.) Critically review learning theory. Learning theory is a routine that is carried out on a daily basis in order to have an experience in various fields of work. There are several theories that explain learning theory. One of the theories is Maslow’ Hierarchy of needs which explains that, when the need level is satisfied, it ceased to become a motivator and fulfillment of higher level is the next goal. (Francesco and Gold, 2005).The second theory is Hertzberg’s motivation hygiene theory which states that, employees’ growth and esteem needs are driven by the motivation factors, responsibility and achievement. This wills results into a job satisfaction at work place. (Francesco and Gold, 2005). The third theory is McClelland’s learned needs theory which explains that needs is learned through Childhood environment, social norms and assists in the understanding of individual motivation (Francesco and Gold, 2005). The last theory is ERG theory which contributes on Maslow theory. It has three categories of needs. Existence which is the physical and psychological need, relatedness which is the need to share ideas with others and feel secure and growth is the need to achieve to fulfill of self esteemed needs. The learning theories have assisted very many people at work place especially the people who are working in the organizations. (Francesco and Gold, 2005). There have been several philosophers who have tried to explain what is learning. Various theories of learning have been therefore have been discussed. Learning theories are the ideas about why or how changes occur. There has been a theory on the behaviorist orientation to learning .This theory is from theorist such as Thorndike, Pavlov and skinner. (Smith, 1999).This theory argues that people change their behavior from the kind of learning they get. People according to the theory are stimulated by the environment they live in. When people live in a good environment they learn to be good and vise versa. Behaviorists argue that people can be taught to produce behavior change in the desired direction. An educator trying to teach people to change should arrange environment of the person to get the desired response. People can learn through skill development and training as well as behavior according to behaviorists. (Smith, 1999). There is another theory on cognitive orientation to learning. Cognitivist such as Piaget, Bruner and Gagne believe that learning process is an internal mental process. Internal mental process includes receiving insight about information, processing the information, memorizing it and finally making a perception. (Smith, 1999).That is how the learning process is according to Cognitivist. People according to the cognitivist learn through the internal cognitive structuring. This structure helps people develop skills and capacity to learn better. Cognitive structure if followed can help a person develop intelligence learning and memory as function of age as well as learning how to learn. Whichever the theory that is followed learning is an important aspect of human being and people should strive to learn more to improve themselves. (Saljo,1979) 2. Positive and negative reinforcements, punishment and extinction in shaping behavior There are many types of positive reinforcements that Godot can use. First Godot can reward excellent behavior. This is normally a very effective method of reinforcing good behavior. (Verddelho, 1999)The implication here is that when an employee is rewarded for good performance, the employee feels motivated to do even better the next time. In the end this will lead to an improved performance which is good not just for the individual but also for the organization. The second positive reinforcement is recognition. Recognition here implies acknowledging excellent behavior of good work. In this case the meaning for this is that supervisors like Godot can simply acknowledge and commend a well performing employee like Diane. Recognition of good work has the implication of having positive congratulatory words for a job that has been well accomplished. This can simply be achieved by a simple word of mouth like ‘well done.’ Unknown to many supervisors, this simple act of recognition normally has a very positive effects on the motivation of an employee of an individual and can result in positive work behavior. (Francesca & Gold, 2008) The use of incentives is another positive reinforcement that can result in improved positive behavior. In this case incentives can be in form of extra or bonus pay for exemplary performance. Incentives can go along way in improving an individual’s performance on the job. (Francesca & Gold, 2008)This is more so if an individual is capable of making more money by displaying good performance method. In this case the issue of a tip was a good gesture to the employees since those with exemplary performance would feel encouraged to do more. One negative way of reinforcing behavior is through harshness. In this case, the employees will only perform well because of fear of reprimand by Godot and not because they feel a compelling need to work hard. This is a negative reinforcement because positive organization behavior should be forced but should come spontaneously. The implication here is that employees should not be coerced into behaving well but rather positive behavior should just come naturally. This therefore means that these employees should not work hard because of fear of being reprimanded by the supervisor but instead should do so because of a need to do so. (Dwyer, 2005) 3. Discuss the impact of these reinforcements and punishment has on behavior and on Diane’s behavior specifically Reinforcement theory suggests that a reinforcement/reward and punishment of certain behavior will most likely result in a repeat of that particular behavior. That is to say that if behavior is not recognized or appreciated chances of it being repeated will be low. . (Francesco & Gold, 2005)   However, the consequence of reinforcement is determined by whether it is negative or positive. Positive reinforcement will motivate employees and result in behavior that will increase an organization’s output and the opposite is true. . (Francesco & Gold, 2005) Diane works hard and her output is great. However, when she breaks a plate one day, Godot yells at her and even makes her pay for the broken plate and the cost of cleaning up the messed caused. Diane has been waiting all along for recognition but she only gets a negative reinforcement for her good output. As it is, it is better to motivate people for the right reasons rather than to punish them for the wrong reasons. (Skinner, 1957). Diane is punished for the wrong reason and fails to get reinforced for the right reasons. Negative reinforcement is not likely to motivate individuals and therefore this will in turn lead to them slacking in their work and thus the overall out put will be low. (Skinner, 1957).   It is because of this that she relaxes when carrying out her duties. Reinforcement suggests that behavior determines outcome and a person will be motivated to seek reinforcement and avoid punishment. When she got a chance to work at a fancy French restaurant at Sydney known La Maison, Diana a University Student could not spend her vacation at her parents home Queabeyan, since she needed money to change on her diet during her next semester . (Skinner, 1957). Ready to prove how good she was, she would balance several plates on her arm and the customers would compliment her on her efficient service, but one day she dropped a bowl of bouillabaisse appetizer on the carpet and hurriedly went for sponge while apologizing but   Godot shouted at her that he would deduct $24.95, $20 from her pay to compensate for appetizer and cost of cleaning rugs respectively, out of anger and confusion, next day Diana slowed down to avoid recurrence of same incident thus she carried   no more than two dishes at a time thus slugging her tips down (Skinner, 1957). Q4 .Effectiveness of hourly pay rates and tips as a method for reinforcing desired behaviors. Tips and hourly rates have been used as a mode of payment against other methods of payment like piece rate and monthly payments. There is a big variation in the effectiveness of the methods. When hourly rate is used as the mode of payment, it has been found to have an effect on quality and speed. These two factors are the one that determine the output of any activity (Encina, 2000). Payment in work acts as an incentive to the worker. Whenever the worker is paid well he will work well and poor pay means poor jobs. It is noted that the worker will always optimize what he has at hand. When he is paid hourly he will do he/her work according to the hour he is being paid. This will spoil the consistency (Encina , 2000). When tips are added to the hourly rate, the worker will optimize on the tips and he/she will improve on his hourly work to get more tips. Things are different when hourly pay is made without the tips as there will be no motivation. Paying on an hourly rate together with the tips may improve on speed but destroy the quality. The use of tips and hourly rate need a balance as what motivate the worker are the conditions of work. Diane on his part was being motivated tips (Encina , 2000). Apart from the pay, there are other factors that motivate worker during their work. Recognition during work is another factor that lender the effectiveness of work. A worker may improve his effectiveness due to tips. This will improve his/her efficiency. When a worker feels that his efficiency has improved, he will look for recognition.   Payment on hourly rates can improve the behaviors of the worker but additional inputs like recognition should be added. Diane opted to work in the right he will perfect the work and in return he will be recognized to get a better pay. For the behavior of an hourly paid worker to improve, incentives have to be added. This will help in improving the efficiency of work and altitude towards work will improve (Schildkraut 2003). The behavior of workers depends very much on the pay and recognition. As much as workers are paid hourly tends to improve the output, their behavior depends much on the supervision. Workers will always maximize on their man hours instead of employers manpower (Schildkraut 2003). Therefore to ensure that the behavior of the worker is good requires supervision. The supervision should not oppress the worker but instead it will help improve his behavior. The role of the supervisor for hourly paid worker is to help the worker to improve in his productivity. Though the supervisor will optimize on production, it should not destroy the quality of the work (Schildkraut 2003). In conclusion hourly rates can improve on the worker behavior but proper measures should be put in place to ensure that the objectives of the company or organization are met. The measure can include recognition after improvement, controlled supervision, and improvement after achievement. There should be no mistake of paying hourly for organization benefit but it should be to the worker (Schildkraut 2003).

Monday, July 29, 2019

Sales Journals Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Sales Journals - Essay Example an (176) explained, the candidate detailed that his job is specifically to look for new orders in state organizations, private sector organizations as well as individual consumers for the supply of HP products. The products include new computers and product servicing if his company gets contracted to supply computers to any client. Although I did not buy any product from John, he demonstrated that he is an outstanding salesman. He demonstrated substantial knowledge about his products and selling techniques, which are paramount in the art and profession of salesmanship. He even asked for my contacts for future follow ups and getting other referrals. To my surprise, after a period of four days as agreed on, I received a call from John confirming our meeting in a day’s time. This demonstrated how he takes follow-ups very seriously by preparing clients in advance prior to visiting them. John is a good listener; he never interrupted my speech as he carefully paid attention to every bit of what I was saying. In order to reach more clients, John explained that he utilizes sales activations and product exhibition shows that are held in different American cities. Such forums are important as salespeople can give presentations and product brochures in regard to their products. As mentioned by Amjed (1-2), he also displayed the characteristic of having good people skills noted in his friendliness, outstanding personality, good listening and the ability to communicate very effectively. He demonstrated good product knowledge as he explained without hesitation all the questions I asked I personally discovered that John is a critical thinker as his plans of action included psychological engagement of a client as well as his ability to initiate a personal feasibility study to have diversity of marketing approaches. Although this was not a company mandated survey, it was for his own benefit to achieve market segmentation in order to sufficiently capture

Sunday, July 28, 2019

History of Darfur Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

History of Darfur - Essay Example The crisis was also caused by the use of the military to oppress the people, as these soldiers were sent to the area that overtook the people and denied them their rights to life and to dignity, in which case they started violating the women, and even started targeting civilians (Jibril 2010, 5). The attack on civilians was a major contributor to the conflict as it was the only soldiers who were armed, and the people suffering were the innocent as their alleged crime was being of the wrong religion and being of a different race from that which they were expected to be. The escalation of the conflict occurred with the presence of the military, which displaced the civilians from the Darfur region, and the people were forced to retaliate, which inspired the killings perpetrated by the military officers. In the Darfur conflict, china played a key role, which is embarrassing to the Chinese government as it was part of the parties that fuelled and waged war in the region. This is because, Sudan has faced sanctions for a long time, which have seen the country’s economy face a sump and in some cases come to a complete halt. However, since china is a major consumer of oil, it turned to Sudan as a source of oil, in which case it funded the Khartoum government and even built infrastructure (Danby 2007, 2). However, this was not the end of the Chinese affair with Sudan as it acted as the main supplier of arms to the country, in which case it is the same weapons and arms that were used in the Darfur crisis. Therefore, china waged war through the government, where the Sudanese government failed to meet the grievances of the people and the Chinese provided armaments that the soldiers used to kill people in Darfur so that the Chinese could get access to oil. This was a violation of the international sanctions placed on Sudan, including the arms embargo that still stands, where it supplied weapons and benefitted grandly from the conflict. The United Nations African Missi on in Darfur was a joint mission authorized in 2007 to contain the conflict in the Darfur region, where it was charged with the mandate to stop the killings, rape and enforce a ceasefire. Despite the huge amount of human resources directed towards the region to bring the whole conflict to a stop, little success can be seen as the forces face equally enormous challenges in protecting the civilians in the area due to the lack of political will to create a stable condition that will facilitate political negotiations. As a result, the UNAMID forces have not managed to bring the entire region to a stable condition and provide all the required humanitarian services that they were charge with the authority to deliver. In addition, the UNAMID forces intervention faces other challenges that include the insecure conditions with many hostilities from both sides of the warring factions. Interventions towards ensuring that the region resumes its stable condition include the use of the internatio nal criminal court to prosecute the president Omar al-Bashir. This is because with al-Bashir as the president and the leader of the government at the time of the conflict did not take responsibility of the people’s grievances, but instead opted to quell the uprising through force (BBC News, 2010). This was a genocidal situation in which many lost their lives warranting the ICC to issue arrest warrants against him, as it is his soldiers that committed crimes

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Cross Cultural management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Cross Cultural management - Essay Example It is important to understand CCM In the management of global operations, particularly in the case of MNEs. All aspects of international business – understanding the customers, motivating employees, controlling operational processes, and strategically planning for shareholders – necessitate an understanding of the dynamics between the cultures of home country and host country nationals. CCM remains the central theme in MNE literature on this subject, and will be further examined in this brief study. Culture impacts the behaviour, morale and productivity of individuals at work, and because of this values and patterns of behaviour reflect upon company attitudes and actions. This poses no problems for companies operating domestically, but for globalized business problems are created when people from different cultural backgrounds are required to work together (Ching-Hsiang & Hung-Wen, 2008). For MNEs and even for domestic corporations, there are advantages in having a meas ure of cultural diversity in the workforce. A workforce is culturally diverse ‘if it is composed of individuals who differ on a characteristic on which they base their own social identity’ (Mazur, 2010, p. 6). A diverse workforce is vital in the present global environment because it currently reflects the changing world and marketplace (p.14). If a company is to grow significantly and prosper into the future, it cannot remain monocultural because doing so would render it irrelevant in an increasing multicultural environment. Furthermore, diversity in an organization enhances the adaptability of its workforce, and organizations characterized by high adaptability have a significant relationship to high performance (Taylor, et al., 2008). CCM is vital to a firm in both the marketing and operational functions. When a firm serves a foreign market, then its products for that market should be compatible with the culture of that country while maintaining the identity of the par ent company’s brand. In such cases, workforce diversity provides the firm with the necessary human resources (skills, tastes, and knowledge) needed to design, construct and market the product. Diversity among operations personnel, particularly in the provision of services, will enable the firm to connect more closely with the intended market (Lindholm, 2000). Literature Review There are six perspectives identified by Fontaine after his seven-year study on CCM in Malaysia, based on comparisons made between Britain, a relatively homogeneous culture, and Malaysia, a heterogeneous culture. The first perspective typifies the classical approach which is based on Hofstede’s theory that national cultures are defined by commonly shared values. Fontaine found issue with Hofstede’s discussion of Malaysian culture, which he described as sharing the same cultural values. Fontaine contends to the contrary, and found that Malaysians tended to mould their values and viewpoints according to their ethnicity, and a number of ethnical groups comprised Malaysian society. CCM uses Hofstede as its classical foundation and from thence diverge into the other perspectives. The

Friday, July 26, 2019

Project Planning Documentation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Project Planning Documentation - Essay Example In this scenario, this report outlines some of the major objectives of implementation of ERP technology. Introduction According to Al-Mashari (2003) the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems can be viewed as one of the most modern and effective developments since 1990s. Additionally, with the growing attention of a number of businesses towards moving from a traditional functional approach to IT and business IS based corporate working environment, ERP systems have turned out to be one of today’s most popular business information system solutions. In addition, the well-known qualities of ERP business solutions motivated businesses to put into practice ERP systems. In this scenario, some of the well-known qualities of ERP systems include standardization and integration capabilities; besides, this is flexible in the both server and client architecture and their capability to take effectual organizational reengineering and management of foundational and support processes (Al-M ashari, 2002; Turban, Leidner, McLean, & Wetherbe, 2005). Seeing the importance of an ERP system for a business, ABC Corporation has decided to implement a corporate-wide Enterprise Resource Planning package which will form (define) the core technology, database, and development environment to be utilized by the organization. This report will present recommendations for the acquisition and implementation of a corporate-wide business information system RFP from ABC Corporation in Toledo, Ohio. In addition, this report will offer a detailed analysis of the major problems and objectives of ERP technology in the context of ABC Corporation. Problem Situation ABC Corporation is currently running and managing its business tasks using the distributed financial management system in conjunction with various disparate platforms. However, with the rapid growth of ABC Corporation is the past few years, the business has experienced expansion in its business circle and data. In this scenario, the old and other business management systems are not capable of offering any reasonable support for the business management. Due to a large number of business management systems the firm is not able to deliver effective performance and a centralized business platform. The business of ABC Corporation is facing a number of IT related problems, some are outlined below: Vulnerability to arrange errors because of slow processing in the course of customer service. Lack of correct performance information Lack of incorporating financial support Dirty data Less supportive for corporate decision support More load on central corporate management staff No central data repository Different formats of data No standard format of data Less support for efficient extraction of information Manual calculations and compilations Long waiting for time for management reports More data duplication Lower quality data Objectives This section outlines the objectives of ABC Corporation which they want to achieve t hrough the implementation of an ERP system. In this scenario, some of the major objectives of this ERP technology based system at ABC Corporation are outlined belo

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Managing Case Study on Colgate Co Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Managing on Colgate Co - Case Study Example The report will also outline some of the competitors in this market that pose a challenge to the operations of Colgate in the oral and dental health care industry. 1.1 Background information about Colgate According to its official website, Colgate was established in 1806 and it was founded by William Colgate. To date, Colgate is regarded as the world’s leader in oral and dental health care and it offers products such as toothbrushes as well as toothpastes. Colgate operates in more than 200 countries though it is based in the US. According to Berger (2010), Colgate has a market share of 44,4 % in the world’s toothpaste industry and it operates in more than 200 countries. The company posted a profit of $3, 615 in the financial year of 2010. The brand is very popular in different countries. For instance, Colgate enjoys a lot of positive consumer response in large emerging economies such as India and Brazil. The company also offers different sizes of toothpaste to different customers. 2.0 Situational analysis of the marketing environment (SWOT) Basically, â€Å"SWOT analysis is a useful instrument that is used to help managers to identify internal strengths and weaknesses of a business and external opportunities and threats facing it,† (Strydom, 2004, p. 31). SWOT stands for strengths (S), weaknesses (W) while on the other hand the external environmental factors are regarded as either opportunities (O) or threats (T) and these factors help the company determine its current position in the market in order to map an effective strategy to realize its intended goals. The table below shows the SWOT analysis for Colgate. Table 1: SWOT analysis for Colgate Strengths The company has good human resources management practices which entails that it has a dedicated workforce The company also uses effective marketing strategies in selling its products Innovation is prioritized in terms of product development and it incorporates dental professionals in its o perations Colgate is a leader in dental hygiene The company operates in many countries across the globe Weaknesses The major weakness of this company is that it spends less on media advertising compared to its rival competitors Opportunities The major opportunity of the company is based on the aspect related to growing dental hygiene market across the whole world. The emerging markets also provide a good opportunity for Colgate Threats The major threat faced by Colgate is related to competition from other rival competitors. There are chances of substitute products being offered by other companies and this affects price of products offered. The other threat is related to currency fluctuations in different countries where Colgate operates Basically, the managers in a company should take advantage of the company’s strengths and opportunities while they put measures in place that are designed to minimise the weaknesses and threats. This section explains in detail the contents of the

Business Regulations and practices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Business Regulations and practices - Essay Example The offeror, in this case Sullivan, may need to prove beyond any reasonable doubt that he was not in the right frame of mind when he made the offer. if he does, a court of law may render the contract invalid, otherwise it remains binding and Sullivan must sell his 40-acre tract of land to Ball for $60000 (Elliott et al 3). In contract laws, both making an offer by the offeror and acceptance or rejection of the offer by the offeree must be communicated to both parties. The offeree must receive the offer, and the offeror must receive a communication from the offeree notifying him/her or the acceptance or rejection of the offer. Chernek makes an offer to sell used farm equipment to Bollow for $10000. Bollow receives the offer, which is okay. Chernek dies before Bollow accepts the offer. Bollow accepts the offer after the offeror had died, but the Chernek is no longer living to be able to receive the acceptance. There is no valid contract in this case. Bollow must accept that there is no more Chernek to complete the contract by receiving his acceptance (Elliott et al 4). When the equipment were lost to an accidental fire disaster, and it is proven that the fire was indeed purely accidental, the contract becomes invalid because it even happened prior to Bollow sending her acceptance of the offer to Chernek. Since the equipment that would been the subject of a contract no longer exist, and they are burnt down before there is the acceptance bit of the deal, the contract is instantly rendered null and void even if Bollow sends the acceptance. Chernek died before the acceptance of the offer by Bollow. The general rule is that, if the offeror dies before the offeree accepts the contract, it remains terminated. It is evident acceptance was only communicated after Chernek’s death; hence the contract was terminated. What makes

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Foundations of Finance and Investment Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Foundations of Finance and Investment - Essay Example This paper would go to analyse the Impact on UK exchange rate against US$ over last five years due to recent MPC's 1 cut on interest rate. The pragmatic correlation among money, real output and interest rates has been attributed significantly with business cycle, monetary transmission mechanism, aggregate money demand and identification of monetary policy rules. There is no accords of interest rate to which should be included as an empirical models for exchange rate To providing the analyse the interdependency of Interest rate and Exchange rate, Fisher definition would not be relevant to economic analysis. So this paper would follow Keynes and other post-Keynesians notion of real rate and exchange rate. Smithin, J. (2003) mentioned that regulating interest rates for exchange rate cannot guard the purchasing power and it is quite unfeasible to do at the macroeconomic level. There is an empirical evidence of the break in the relationship between interest rates, exchange rate and inflation ever since 1953. The present analysis of UK interest rate cut and impact on US$ are relevant to specifying the monetary policy system pursued by the two monetary authorities. This paper assumes that the monetary authority regulates the short-term ostensible interest rate. According to classical Taylor theory the instrument is set to act in response to domestic inflation as well as output gap. On the other hand in open-economy model specificities more controversial reasoning the set of variables in the direction of which monetary policy can react is superior. The present strategy is to discover the consequences for the equilibrium allotment of simple rules, which lead to equilibrium that can be worked out analytically to understanding the transmission mechanism under open economies. The analyse go with three regimes and label as: - a) a fixed exchange rate; b) a floating exchange rate c) a managed exchange rate, Theoretical Aspect of Interest Rate First level let consider the rules that establish a fixed nominal exchange rate. Pigeon, M. A. (2004) added that it would demonstrate that in principle numerous fixed exchange rate regimes subsist on the specification of the fundamental rules. Thus a floating regime that is defined as a command in which the interest rates in both countries don't respond explicitly to the exchange rate. It would be characterised as where & is non-negative; here its combination of rules as floating command . These rules have been broadly used in the closed-economy literature. Most of the policymaker reacts to precedent movements in the interest rate, present household producer inflation rate and output gap. According to classical Taylor rules, the coefficients and are zeros.2 Benigno, G, & Benigno, P. (2006) argued within the floating-exchange regime, we consider also rules in which the reaction is toward the domestic

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Ethics in the 21st Century Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Ethics in the 21st Century - Research Paper Example ior shows ethics through the way a person performs in public, according to the Institute of Global Ethics in the article ‘Ethics and 21st century University’, it is stated that, ethical behavior requiresa person to be: Such are the basic ethics that each society teaches to every individual. Absence of such ethics and ethical behavior can result into problems. These ethics teaches an individual to behave in an appropriate way in the society. Ethics and its nature have been different in different time. Some of the basic social ethics have remained the same but with time as situations change the code of ethics also change. Ethics of 21st century is a result of such case. Ethics of 21st century has a lot of considerations. It is stated that in 21st century ethics is not an option but compulsion. Besides holding the characteristics of competence, experience and intelligence, people at every level need ethical values. Those values predict their future behavior and performance. Rushworth M. Kidder, (2001) states that the principle task of 21st century decade is the creation and nurturing of a value- based culture which means that the ethics of this century are morally strong and follow strict ethics, he was of the view that due to the large amount of time spends at work much of the nurturing takes place in the business environment. Today almost all the organizations are aware of the need for ethics. Organizations see ethics as a social responsibility which they follow as a social obligation. There is a need to follow ethics because it predicts their social and professional relations. In the article ‘Ethics for 21st century’ (UNESCO, 2001) this report is reported from the conference which was held in 2nd session discusses ethics and its role deeply. Ethics from different perspectives are discussed in the paper for example: These roles play a significant role for the analysis of ethics in different fields. It thus enhances the role of ethics in every field

Monday, July 22, 2019

Kite Runner Essay Essay Example for Free

Kite Runner Essay Essay Khaled Hosseini’s kite runner has many themes that are significant. This book also has themes that are hidden to the reader, to find these themes the reader needs to think about the events that occur in the book. In this book redemption, discrimination, and violence play a big role in the events in this book. Redemption is one of the most important themes in the kite runner. Throughout the story, Amir is trying to redeem himself because of many events that he was a part of. In the begging of the story Rahim Khan calls Amir and tells him â€Å"There is a way to be good again. † (Page 2) Putting this in the first chapter of the story tells the reader many things about Amir, it could tell us that Amir has done many things that he regrets, or he has done things that caused pain to someone else. Amir’s mother dies when she is giving birth to him, throughout the story Amir tries many different things to redeem himself to his father. When Amir wins the kite competition he thinks that he would finally redeem himself for his mothers death. Amir thinks that he redeems himself because â€Å"A smile played down on my father’s lips. He opened his arms† (Page 79) When someone does this someone will automatically think that you redeemed yourself to that person. Another event that Amir does that he redeems himself for later is when he blackmails Hassan. Amir’s father gives him a watch and Amir decides to put it under Hassan’s pillow. Later when Amir’s father finds out that he took his watch he forgives him, but Ali (Hassan’s father) says that they make the decision to leave. To the near end of the book, when Amir goes back to Afghanistan, he receives a letter from Hassan. The letter tells him that he (Hassan) died, and that he has a son that it taken by the Taliban. Amir tells Farid (The person who takes Amir around in Afghanistan) about Sohrab, and he tells him â€Å"You have a visa to go to America, to life with me and my wife. It’s true. I promise† (Page 355) When Amir found out that he lost his best friend he went through a lot of trouble to get Sohrab. Amir could have avoided this if he did not frame Hassan. If Amir did not frame Hassan, Hassan and Ali could have fled the country with Amir and his father. This event has a big impact on the events in the story. Without these examples of redemption, it is hard to picture the book ending in the way that it did. Along with many other themes, discrimination is one of the less discussed themes in this book. In my opinion I think that discrimination should be a theme that should be as important as any other theme. Discrimination plays a big role in the kite runner because of the structure of the social classes. In the begging of the story we know that Hassan is Amir’s Hazara but later we know that he is Amir’s brother. When Amir won the kite competition Hassan went to get the winning the kite. Hours had passed and Hassan did not show up. Amir goes looking for him and he asks Omar (only involved in one paragraph) if he saw Hassan, Omar answers him by saying â€Å"Your Hazara? † (Page 68) without saying more than two sentences, we can see that people in the class with Hassan are treated with no respect and they are called Hazaras. Another event that happens when Hassan finally finds the kite that allowed Amir to win the competition he is surrounded by Assef and his gang. Assef is one of the biggest discriminators towards Hazaras as he is intimidating Hassan, he says, â€Å"A loyal Hazara, Loyal as a dog† (Page 72) When Hassan said this he could of compared Hassan to something else, but he picked a dog to show the most disrespect towards Hassan. In my own opinion I think that discrimination towards Hazaras in Kabul is horrible because they are treated as if they are a different race of people. Hazaras have the exact physical features as any average human being but they are treated like they are slaves. This is how discrimination, which is one of the themes that is not talked about a lot, is significant in this book. Violence is also one of the themes that are not discussed as much, violence should be because it is important and it is hidden. There are many examples that show violence in the book. One of the examples that show violence is when Hassan gets raped when Assef and his gang surround him. The author does not tell the reader that Hassan got raped but instead he makes Wali, one of the members of Assef’s gang, tell Assef â€Å"My father says it’s sinful† (Page 75) This is a indirect message to inform the reader that Hassan gets raped. This is one great example that violence plays a big role in the process of this book. Assef could of threated Hassan instead of raping him. In my opinion I think that he could not have done something that wasn’t related to violence. Assef wanted to have his revenge on Hassan but it was hard to do something that has nothing to do with violence. Later on in the book, when Amir and Hassan do not talk to each other after Hassan got raped for him over a kite. Hassan asked if he could go under the pomegranate tree and let Amir read a story for him. When Amir and Hassan were under the pomegranate tree, Hassan asked Amir what he was doing wrong so he could stop, Amir told him that Hassan should stand up for himself. Hassan did not answer and Amir started to throw pomegranates on Hassan, Amir then told him â€Å"Hit me back! Hit me back goddamn you† (Page 92) this is another great example that shows the violence that is included in the book. Hassan is the most loyal person in the book and Amir does not appreciate it; instead Amir wants Hassan to hit him with a pomegranate. When Hassan stands up, he then smears a pomegranate on his face and walks away. This is how violence plays a theme in the book. It is not as visible as the other themes in the book but it is as significant as the other themes. Redemption, discrimination, and violence are themes in Khaled Hosseini’s kite runner that play a big role in the book. Without these three themes it is hard to picture if the book would end up the way that it actually ended up being. Quotes and Information taken from Kite Runner by Khaled Hosseini.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Creativity Can Be Nurtured And Developed Education Essay

Creativity Can Be Nurtured And Developed Education Essay A creative process could be defined as an unexpected combination of elements which provides a surprising solution to a problem. (Biltion, 2007) With the development of modem society, especially the emergence of the knowledge economy, poses a new requirement to education. It requires the education, especially the elementary education, to focus on the creativity of students. However, there is a great contradiction between the requirement of the time and the reality, which makes the task more and more essential and urgent to develop creativity. On the task of nurturing creativity, there are diverging points. Some hold on that elementary education could not develop creativity for students, neither is it necessary. Others opposed that the development of creativity is a kind of training to the thinking skill of the students. Both of them might be the wrong cognition after wrong understanding of creativity. In addition, the creativity of students in elementary educational stage is the creativity in the sense of individual, and the importance of the development of creativity should be attached on the creativity of the whole. Meanwhile, creativity is a complex capability which consists of knowledge skills, thinking, as well as personality, and they interact with each other. (Sternberg, 1999) The development of creativity in elementary stage while is a process from low to high is helpful for the development of higher standard creativity of students in future. Thus, not only that elementary education could develop the creativity fo r students, but also that should it attach more importance to the development of students creativity. The responsibilities in creativity development that the elementary education should assume are making students master knowledge skills which are necessary for creating as much as possible, forming the characteristics which are beneficial for creating, and developing personalities which are helpful for creating. 1.2 Essay structure This essay is going to discuss that creativity can be nurtured and developed in three following aspects. Firstly, it will generally discuss whether the factor of elementary education could take the responsibility of creative cultivation. Secondly, whether subject curriculum is the necessity in developing creativity will be debated. Next, it will prove that study evaluation is also an important indicator for creative abilities. At last, this essay will end up with a conclusion. 2. Elementary education 2.1 Suspicions of elementary education There are differences of understanding that elementary education can cultivate creativity for students. There is a view that: creativity is not a training of specific skills so that creative abilities are impossible to foster. (Downing, 1997) This cognition mainly came from the practice of creative capacity building in elementary education. The practice through thinking trainings to cultivate students creativity is subject to a number of queries by Downing. He opposed that it would simplify the development of creativity. It is also found in practice that due to the learning of creative thinking techniques are often highly situated. In fact, setting up to foster innovative thinking is lack of ecological validity, which is difficult to reconcile with real life. Furthermore Weisberg (1997) pointed out: some creative thinking training can indeed improve test scores of individuals in specific tasks. But few studies have shown that such these trainings of nurturing creativity are persisten t or stable and they can be extended beyond the specific test. It is recognized that creative capacity is not skill training in fixed steps so that creativity absolutely cannot be nurtured in this way. Consequently, elementary education is questioned that it cannot cultivate creative ability. There is another view that elementary education lays on the foundation education to future creativities for students. Therefore, the task of higher education is building and shaping creativity so that the stage of elementary education does not need to cultivate creativity for students. (Craft, 2002) The formation of this view, which has two potential logics, is still related to both understanding of students creative ability and the right understanding of the innovative capacity development. On one hand, students will naturally develop their creativity if they have the foundation knowledge and skills. The basic education is mainly for students to construct a good foundation of knowledge and skills, which are primarily based on the results of human knowledge and cultural heritage. Moreover, students would naturally start developing their creativity after they obtain these knowledge and skills. As a result, elementary education does not need to emphasize the development of creative cap acity. On the other hand, there is no significance of individual creativity for students that it is not too late to foster creativity when they finish their elementary education. What students create mainly based on the re-discovery of yielded or former research results. Creativity in students has less social significance so that elementary education would not emphasize the cultivation of creativity as long as they master a solid foundation of various knowledge and skills. As a result, creativity cannot be cultivated in elementary education. 2.2 Arguments of Suspicions In fact, most creativity of students belongs to individual senses of creativity while there are a small number of students who could carry out significant creativities to the whole society. But it will promote creative capability of the social significance. From learned knowledge, creative thinking and personality characteristics, which are conducive to foster creativity in elementary education, students would get innovative knowledge and skills which will become useful basis for the development of creativity in a high level. (Meador, 1997) At the same time, from the acquisition of knowledge and skills students will be inevitably accompanied by a certain quality of thinking as well as the formation of personality characteristics in educational and teaching activities. On the contrary, rigid and systematic ways of thinking as well as blind obedience or conformity to authority of personality characteristics are not conducive to the development of innovative ability for students. Theref ore, creative ability of students in the stage of elementary education is a foundation in high level of creativity development. At the same time, researches of psychology, philosophy and pedagogy also show that there is a crucial period to nurture creative capability. Only seizing that period to train students will better promote their creativity and creative capacity development. Moreover, Eysenck and Keane (2000) noted that learning ability is not an infinite and squander resource for children. If students curiosity as well as their innate senses of questioning have not been awakened or protected but rather severely repressed and obstructed, they would eventually lose out and disappear. Furthermore, the intellectual flexibility, spirit of adventure and self-confidence are very necessary and valuable qualities to explore new things. If they were abused or non-used in a long time, the above qualities will lose their original roles. Although there is less creative capability which co uld own social significance in the lower phase of education, elementary education can still provide good conditions for the development of future innovative abilities in an advanced stage. As a result, it cannot be negated the importance of creativity and creative capacity-building in stage of elementary education let alone as specific tasks in a higher education. 3. Subject curriculum 3.1 Criticism of Subject curriculum However, it is accompanied by obstacles that subject curriculum will inevitably hinder and even stifle creative capability of students. Subject knowledge omitted many areas of exploration while knowledge-oriented presentation is simple. Therefore knowledge of subject curriculum is simplicity of logical links in concepts, facts and principles. It is also believed that the teaching of subject curriculum deviate from experiences of students, which may inevitably lead students to study without motivation. (Ansubel, 2002) Acceptance of learning refers to a phenomenon that main contents which students learned were found by themselves. During the period of learning, which is mainly a process of assimilation of knowledge, how much of the main content is presented to students in a shaped form. Study found the opposite. On the contrary, learning discovery is that the main content in study process is not given but they determined by their own before they internalized the knowledge and skills. T he difference between the two learning styles is whether there is a substantive link between the old and new knowledge. In Ausubels opinion, a meaningful learning process has three conditions: In the first place, students have meaningful learning mindsets in actively psychological preparations for the establishment of substantive combination of the new knowledge with their own cognitive structure of former knowledge. In the second place, there is an appropriate basis for students to assimilate new knowledge in their cognitive structures. Finally, learned new knowledge itself has a logical meaning while there is a clear connection with the relevant knowledge and their cognitive structures in order to be assimilated in appropriate conditions. In other words, as long as students are in active learning states, besides there is an organic link between the acquisition of new knowledge and established experience of old knowledge, it is a meaningful learning. In contrast, rote acceptance of learning is a situation that students are forced to internalize relevant knowledge without the corresponding experience in subject curriculum teaching. Consequently subject curriculum may lead students rottenly accepting study. Moreover, during learning activities the way of thinking could be relatively passive and rigid so that students might be subject to distortions in the development of personality. As a result, subject teaching activities are not conducive to the development of creative ability for students. 3.2 Approvals of subject curriculum Despite there is a phenomenon that students knowledge divorced from their experience in the teaching of subject curriculum so that students accepted rote study. However, this is not a pedagogical necessity to hinder the development of creativity. Students who engage in the combination of experience and academic knowledge would be in meaningful learning that discovery can be carried out. The development of students creative capacity is based on certain knowledge and skills in the stage of elementary education. They are comprehensive so that a certain amount and wide range of knowledge and skills can form a reasonable knowledge structure. Moreover, mastery of knowledge and skills implies that there must be a logical link which is able to achieve a structure, especially an aspect of connected network within knowledge and skill mastery. The characteristic of subject curriculum determined that curriculum study would help students to master and systematically form a comprehensive and struc tured knowledge and skills in a short period. In Kliebards (2004) research, the development of American society required obvious demands of peoples innovative ability in the early 20th century. Therefore most American schools canceled the subject curriculum in teaching activities because the application of knowledge and skills cannot solve real problems and new issues in actual works and life, which is not useful for cultivating students creativity. According to ideas of Rousseaus natural thinking in principles of education, they claimed that the development of creativity should be focus on students interests and needs. Therefore, subject curriculum was replaced by activity curriculum which was divided into nature, Labor and sociality three aspects. However, the education of canceling or seriously neglecting subject curriculum revealed handicaps soon. It was found that activity curriculum easily resulted in one-sided interests and needs for students. Furthermore, the lack of rigorous teaching and learning activities in school education programs may make students not grasp systematically knowledge and skills. In this regard, Klein (1991) pointed out those factors such as: progressive education movement of overlooking traditional curriculum reflected on various embarrassing situations of American education. For instance, academic standards of elementary education were fallen behind other countries. A growing number of college students are inadequate in basic knowledge. In fact some of them were unable to read. Undue emphasis on activity curriculum had been widely criticized. In 1957 the first satellite was successfully launched in the Soviet Union, which has greatly shocked the United States. From the above historical review it can be seen that cancellation or neglect of the subject curriculum is not conducive to systematically master a variety of cultural and scientific knowledge for students, which is an important foundation of solving problems and creativity cultivating. Meanwhile, subject curriculum is the key to academic creativity and personnel training. Why United States emphasis on strengthening the subject curriculum, especially in science, mathematics and foreign language, is to train and develop creative people in high-level scientific and technological areas. Therefore, the cultivation of creative ability cannot neglect subject curriculum teaching, which is an essential component of nurturing creativity. 4. Study evaluation 4.1 negative factors  of academic evaluation Examination is an academic and summative evaluation, which is just an identification and selection of concerned students. Besides, this evaluation is aimed at selecting appropriate education for students, thus it may prematurely differentiate grades of students creativity. (Eikleberry, 1999) As a result, academic evaluation will hinder the future development of creative ability. For example, the development of creativity is also required to focus on the evaluation of students which an important component of academic achievement. It is a process that appropriate and effective methods are applied to judge the value of the study level for students. In other words, it is designed to measure or diagnose whether students have achieved the educational objectives and goals. Examination is one test to evaluate academic achievement. According to Sriramans (2008) research, the outcome of each question is objective. Therefore, the examination is also characterized by only a certain set of evalua tion criteria, which is able to smoothly ensure progress of tests in order to reach the achievement of the tests purpose. Like 3+5=8, 8-2=6. However, only one model answer would hinder creative ability of students because not every student is good at the mastery of math knowledge. Students have to correctly answer questions in only one way of expression in vast majority of the questions in the evaluation. Consequently, examinations necessarily constrain students thinking. In that case, rigid minds are unable to promote the cultivation of creativity so that creative capacities of students would be limited. 4.2 Benefits of academic assessment A single evaluation of academic achievement is not beneficial to the cultivation of creativity for students. A new method is authentic assessment, which is defined as a proper evaluation of performances and manifestations during the learning activities (Villa and Thousand, 2005) There are three factors to reasonable evaluation in the combination of academic and authentic assessment. Firstly, from records and data collection of students personality characteristics which are reflected in the process of learning activities, there could be an obvious evaluation that students are in positive statement or they complete assignments on time. Secondly, to the mastery of sophisticated skills which are generally integrated multi-disciplinary in the use of complex situations, authentic assessment could affirm advantages of the students in study process. Besides, problems which came across can be timely fed back to students, which may overcome existing difficulties and improve creative skills. Fi nally, it can access a mastery and understanding of comprehensive knowledge in addressing real-life problems in the community for students. Through the evaluation of academic achievement which is difficult to measure investigation, their creative abilities and performance will reasonably evaluated. It can be shown that a reasonable evaluation has its own advantages which can identify different personality and characteristics for different students, including creative abilities in various aspects of knowledge learning. Students could also find their insufficiencies through an objective evaluation so that the result could more or less motivate their interests, which is a significant indicator for developing creativity. Meanwhile, creativity located in the intersection of individual, discipline, and field. (Gardner, 1993) At the same time, the evaluation knowledge, skills and personality is a significant expression to the cultivation of innovative capability, which would recover the inefficiency of a single evaluation in academic achievement and promote the development of creativity. 5. Conclusion To sum up, the essay just from a starting point does a research of the creativity development of students in the elementary educational stage. Creativity development should focus on teaching contents, teaching methods, and teaching assessment in the school teaching activities, which is decided by the main tasks of elementary education. Nevertheless, there are different views on these factors. For one thing, it is generally believed that what are helpful for creativity development are activity curriculum, discovery study and authentic assessment. Subject curriculum and study achievement assessment in the old days not only are harmful for development of creativity, but also do block the way for students to create and discover new things. For another, it is also considered that it would be in a difficulty for the totally negating subject curriculum and study achievement assessment. Moreover, this essay takes the divergence of the cognition as the key points, basing on the research of teaching practice and summarization of the practical experience, to express and settle the personal view points by analyzing and clarifying some cognition. It perhaps clearly points on the teaching contents that subject curriculum is necessary for creativity developing rather than that it will baffle students on creativity development. However, single subject curriculum can create the phenomenon of high marks, low ability. On school teaching, it should arrange activity curriculum because these two curriculums joined with each other would be an advantage complementary on creativity development. For teaching method, elementary education does not necessarily baffle students on creativity development. Consequently, the teaching of subject curriculum is mainly objective and useful, but single subject curriculum is not helpful for students creativity development. In addition, creative de velopment needs discovery study while mechanic discovery study is not helpful for creativity development. On teaching assessment, study achievement assessment is necessary for creativity development. On the contrary, unscientific study achievement assessment is handful for creativity development. At last, creativity can be developed and nurtured within the responsibility of elementary education while creativity development should combine subject curriculum and activity curriculum as well as achievement assessment and authentic assessment in a comprehensive and objective method.

Impact of Globalization on the Fashion Industry

Impact of Globalization on the Fashion Industry After 1979 revolution the loose-fitting manteau and black headscarf was obligatory in Iran, still the state dress code was challenged by the women wearing fashionable and colorful coats with head coverings to match. Western fashions and influences are not prohibited in Saudi Arabia, but sometimes accustomed to meet Islamic standards. In a similar trend, Elle magazine recently launched its Middle Eastern version, featuring glossy pages of women in conservative clothing and a mixture of Eastern and Western fashions. Since the 1980s and the growth of the global economy, there has been massive growth in what Joanne Eicher has termed world fashion (p. 300). At the start of the twenty-first century, the preferred garments of young people of both sexes from around the world tend to be jeans, sweatshirts, T-shirts, and sneakers. These clothes are also international icons of American culture. The global young wear the same clothing, a phenomenon made possible by the exploitative mechanisms of the globalization of clothing manufacture, distribution, and retailing and by new technologies, global commodity advertising of branded leisure clothing, and the cultural and political domination of the United States. The reasons for wearing such clothing vary, but these clothes signify youth, modernity, and an eagerness to belong to the newly globalized capitalist world. In the period from 1964 to 1970, styles of dress worn by young women in Britain were the most famous visible representation of the teenage revolution and of the cutting edge of cultural modernity. Miniskirts exposed thighs to public view for the first time in European-American fashion history. These changes were rooted in the major social and cultural upheavals of the late 1950s, generated, as Tony Bennett explains, by a watershed around which a series of significant before and after contrasts can be drawn (p. 7). Young, radical film-makers, painters, writers, photographers, and designers then successfully challenged the British establishments hold on cultural power. Many who came from working-class backgrounds were helped into university and art-school education by postwar state grants to cover fees and living costs. The London couture trade ignored these developments, maintaining their prewar function of creating elegant clothing for the annual high society calendar. The fashionable age in 1955 was around thirty-five but could easily be fifty-five if a woman kept a slim figure. By 1965 the fashionable age was sixteen, a near twenty-year drop in ten years. Dress Globalization Of Fashion Due to globalization the companies are adapting the new initiatives for their production, manufacturing. To get the competitive advantage in the industry fashion houses are now outsourcing from some countries world country where the labor cost is too low. Furthermore, the designers of the international brands are constantly in search of the new design to create new customers and to be ahead in the competition within the industry. The existing mode influencing customization or modification in the costume is fashion. The Asian style has been characterized by the freedom from change which was followed by the Roman and Greek for centuries. It is believed that the fashion in dress started off in Europe on 14th century. The styles were defined by the prominent personages and the monarchs spread through descriptions in letters, in costume, exchange of fashion doll, by travelers. In 1586, first fashion magazine was produced in Frankfurt. Then in 1830 the Godeys Ladys Book produced in United States was popular for decades. The only influential designer in costume at that period was Rose Bertin, milliner and dressmaker to Marie Antoinette. In Paris-the leading arbiter of fashion since the Renaissance-the fading influence of celebrities was coincident with the rise of designer-dressmakers in the mid-19th cent. Paris haute couture has remained preeminent in setting fashions for womens dress. Designers such as Charles Frederick Worth, Coco Chanel, Lucien Lelong, Elsa Schiaparelli, Cristà ³bal Balenciaga, Christian Dior, and Yves Saint Laurent have had fashion houses in Paris. In the latter part of the 20th cent. such American designers as Norman Norell, Mainbocher, James Galanos, Bill Blass, and Pauline Trigà ¨re competed successfully with Parisian designers. London, in the early 19th cent., became the center for mens fashions under the leadership of Regency dandies such as Beau Brummell. In the mid-1960s, London was again for a time the center of fashion influence. The 1970s and 80s saw the beginning of more divergent trends in fashion. This was the result of the increasing popularity of ready-to-wear collections by major designers, which made fashionable label-conscious dressing possible for the middle class. Ethnic-inspired looks and the punk style enjoyed a period of popularity. Successful clothing designers such as Ralph Lauren, Georgio Armani, Gianni Versace, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Rei Kawakubo, and Geoffrey Beene widened their design horizons, licensed their names, and put their distinctive marks on objects ranging from furniture to cars, fabric, and perfumes. The look of luxuriance that emerged in the 1980s was countered in the 1990s with the production of classic understated clothes. Fashions are adapted for mass production by the garment industries of New York, Los Angeles, and other cities. Influence of faster and effective communication In the age of globalization the producers of cloths and marketing manager of different brands are now able to communicate their new design, trend and brand faster than ever. The internet has successfully established a new communication channel along with different innovative tools. The international marketers are now influencing the ultimate consumers using the celebrities as brand ambassadors helping them to add value to the promoted brand to influence the target market. The innovative ideas, promotional mix, including event management and thousands of media channels are employed to establish the brand and to capture a position in the target audience. Branding, Brand Positioning The significance of clothing goes beyond what we wear. A pair of blue jeans is not just a pair of blue jeans. The brand is often just as or more important as the article of clothing. Brand recognition is a crucial factor in the world of fashion, especially for younger generations. Faedda asserts that for young people jeans have become a tool of social and political protest, of adherence and membership, symbol and emblem; for stylists jeans have become a trendy casual product, a refined prà ªt a porter article or quite a high fashion creation. To establish their brand the global designers are always aware of promoting their brands through every possible way. They use the celebrities, rock stars, artist, players to influence their fans as they can easily influence their fans. For instance, lately the Emporio Armani has successfully managed to come in to contract with Christiano Ronaldo the footballer. Influence of Cultural Globalization Now the world is experiencing the presence of the BigMacs from Viena to Sydney, people are wearing clothes from the Benetton, working on the IBM computers, talking about the human rights and watching CNN or MTV. But their presence indicates that the worlds is experiencing mostly western flavor due to the globalization. Globalization has increased the ratio of migration, FDI, franchising, joint venture allies, merger and acquisition process which in turn increase the competition along with the efficiency. To get the competitive advantages the companies are now following outsourcing to become more cost effective. All these initiatives allow cultural blending across the nations as it requires people from different country to communicate interact with each other. Furthermore the internet allows us to get any sort of information instantly. The instant access easily transfer the fashion, culture and other cultural parameters offering more uniform genre of taste and preference. Conclusion The competitions forces some of the companies to come along with the innovative approach in their promotional strategies to attract their potential customers compare to the industry rivals. Fashion is a modern European occurrence, which is inseparable from capitalism in Europe. It is the progress of the bourgeois 19th century and the industrial revolution. Fashion can only flourish and become a mass event in an industrialized society with developed technology, sound aesthetic taste and uniqueness, as well as wealth. Because fashion is the opulence one must be able to pay for. Due to globalization people with common taste are able to communicate and can find out their favorite fashion which are getting more uniform day by day.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Stem Cell Research Can Help the Sick :: Stem Cell Research

Stem cell research is a very complex argument. There are people that feel that stem cell research should not have even been introduced into our society. However, there are others that feel that stem cell research could change many lives. Those who feel it could change many lives are right in many people’s eyes. With the advancement of stem cell research, we would be able to help many people with such diseases as heart disease and Alzheimer’s. Stem cells could also help others with dibilating diseases and those who have suffered some very unfortunate accident. One particularly known person who supports the stem cell research was Christopher Reeves, who was paralyzed in an accident. Other people that believe that the research is unethical since the best way to get stem cells is from embryos, in which the embryo is killed in order to take the stem cells. The biggest obstacle for stem cell research would have to be, killing the human embryo in order to take the stem cells. Many of those that oppose the research believe that is murder, since many religions, such as the Catholic Church, believe that the embryo has a soul, therefore, it is considered murder and a sin. There are other ways of getting the cells, which do not require the killing of embryos. One way to get the stem cells would be from taking them from an adult source. However, those are sometimes not as abundant as those taken from embryos. There is a chance that the cells could be harvested from the Umbilical cords donated from newborns. There are other instances of the cells being taken from those of aborted babies. If the mothers do not want to keep the baby, why not have them donated to the stem cell research, in order to help someone else. Also, there are the embryos that are left in the fertility clinics. Those embryos are going to be destroyed anyway, why not donate t hose that are grown to the stem cell research. With the stem cell research, there could be many lives saved by the research alone. However, there is no estimate to the lives that stem cell research could save and there is no number of those that have been saved by stem cell research. In fact, there is no human research to date that states that stem cells are going to work.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Physician Assistant :: essays research papers

Thesis: Physician assistants are well-recognized and highly sought-after members of the health care team who, with doctors, provide quality care to patients. In order to do that, training, hard work, and a good education are required. I. As history says, physician assistants have always been a much needed commodity in health care.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. Who came up with the idea for a physician assistant?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. Dr. Eugene A. Stead, Jr. came up with the idea in 1965.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2. He was chairman of the Department of Medicine at Duke University.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B. Why was there a need for physician assistants?   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. There was a shortage and uneven distribution of primary care   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   physicians.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2. He selected Navy corpsmen who received considerable medical   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   training during their military service in Vietnam. He based the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   curriculum on the fast-track training of doctors during World War II. II. Physician assistants are skilled health care practitioners who offer many common medical services.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. Physician assistants have many demanding responsibilities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. Physician assistants can collect historical data, order lab tests, interpret   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   lab results, read EKG’s, teach and counsel patients, assist physicians in   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   rounds, and record patient progress under a physician’s supervision.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2. Physician assistants also have patient contact such as physical exams,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   suturing of wounds, assisting in surgery, giving injections and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   immunizations, venipuncture, applying casts, and prescribing   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   medications all under a physician’s supervision.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B. Physician assistants have training to care for eight out of ten people who visit   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   a family practitioner.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  C. What does the job involve and what are your limitations set by the doctor? III. While physician assistants can do many things, there are differences between them and doctors.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. Besides the title, doctors and physician assistants have slightly different   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   responsibilities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. Physician assistants practice medicine with the supervision of a   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   physician while a doctor is an independent practitioner.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2. The doctors have complete responsibility for the care of the patient.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Physician assistants share the responsibility.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  3. Doctors also make themselves available for the more difficult and   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   complex procedures.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B. The main difference between a physician assistant and a doctor is education.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. The Physician Assistant Program is about two-thirds of the time one   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   would spend in medical school.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  2. Physician assistants don’t have an internship or a residency.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   IV. One of the most important things a physician assistant can have is a good education.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  A. The first two years of college are very important.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1. A physician assistant will take a college curriculum and have classes

Thursday, July 18, 2019

How Does the Public Sector Work? Essay -- Public Management

If you don't understand how the public sector is supposed to work, how can you ensure that it is working? An easy definition of public administration is, â€Å"the implementation of government policies† (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010), or, â€Å"the implementation of public policy† (, 1997). While policies and procedures seem to be continuously up for debate, it should be noted that, an informed public are the only sure-fire way to ensure that the public sector stays on track with meeting the needs of its constituents. People, as a whole, tend to appreciate good leaders. â€Å"It is the task of a leader to connect people with purpose† (Blunt, 2007). Why does this help us in the public sector? To paraphrase J.D. Straussman, leaders must have a vision, â€Å"establish direction† with regards to that vision, â€Å"align people by creating an environment of cooperation†, and â€Å"motivate and inspire members of the organization† (Straussman, pg. 4). Generally, public sector's have not yet embraced the positive aspects of what leadership skills can bring to their organizations. One wonders, what is so wrong with vision or inspiring and motivating people? Motivating employees should be one of most important aspects of leadership in the public sector. Motivated employees often show higher productivity levels than others. Often confused with leadership is the role of management in an organization. First tier management skills are highly coveted within the public sector. These skills are planning, organizing, directing and controlling (Reh, 2009) and are mostly built in to any and all management models in the public sector itself. Second tier management skills build on the leadership skills mentioned above, such as, motivation, training ... ...illsPyramid.htm Becketts, K. (2010). Four major functions of public administration: an overview. Retrieved from American Society of Public Administration, . (2006). Code of ethics. Retrieved from Bai, M. (2010, December 16). Is ‘triangulation’ just another word for the politics of the possible?. Retrieved from Goble, K. (2010, December 17). Top state issues for 2011 revealed. Retrieved from Americans for Fair Taxation, . (2010). Frequently asked questions - answers. Retrieved from How Does the Public Sector Work? Essay -- Public Management If you don't understand how the public sector is supposed to work, how can you ensure that it is working? An easy definition of public administration is, â€Å"the implementation of government policies† (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2010), or, â€Å"the implementation of public policy† (, 1997). While policies and procedures seem to be continuously up for debate, it should be noted that, an informed public are the only sure-fire way to ensure that the public sector stays on track with meeting the needs of its constituents. People, as a whole, tend to appreciate good leaders. â€Å"It is the task of a leader to connect people with purpose† (Blunt, 2007). Why does this help us in the public sector? To paraphrase J.D. Straussman, leaders must have a vision, â€Å"establish direction† with regards to that vision, â€Å"align people by creating an environment of cooperation†, and â€Å"motivate and inspire members of the organization† (Straussman, pg. 4). Generally, public sector's have not yet embraced the positive aspects of what leadership skills can bring to their organizations. One wonders, what is so wrong with vision or inspiring and motivating people? Motivating employees should be one of most important aspects of leadership in the public sector. Motivated employees often show higher productivity levels than others. Often confused with leadership is the role of management in an organization. First tier management skills are highly coveted within the public sector. These skills are planning, organizing, directing and controlling (Reh, 2009) and are mostly built in to any and all management models in the public sector itself. Second tier management skills build on the leadership skills mentioned above, such as, motivation, training ... ...illsPyramid.htm Becketts, K. (2010). Four major functions of public administration: an overview. Retrieved from American Society of Public Administration, . (2006). Code of ethics. Retrieved from Bai, M. (2010, December 16). Is ‘triangulation’ just another word for the politics of the possible?. Retrieved from Goble, K. (2010, December 17). Top state issues for 2011 revealed. Retrieved from Americans for Fair Taxation, . (2010). Frequently asked questions - answers. Retrieved from

Trade blocs: Economics and politics Essay

Trading BlocsThe key term in this essay is â€Å"Trading bloc† and my interest in this term has been as a result of the major economic changes that have taken place across the world. I have been able to note that there have been great developments in international trading and business (Haftel, 2004). Economic integration is considered as the new form of reality in carrying out international business (Macho-Stadler, & Xue, 2007). Business institutions as well as governments have formulated various institutions, agreements and treaties which help in dealing with trade differences, allow and boost the movement of goods, services and trade across boundaries of countries involved (Chase, 2005). Furthermore, my interest is as a result of the business relationships that I have noted between my country and that of the other nations. A â€Å"Trading bloc† can be defined as countries that have come together to form a set that is closely involved in business and international trade with each other. The countries that form the trading blocs are often related to each other through a mutual agreement known as â€Å"free trade agreement or even other form of association which promotes trade within those countries and among the countries involved (Macho-Stadler, & Xue, 2007). The trading blocs often have rules and regulations which have been set to govern how the member countries relate with each other on business and international trade matters while separate rules and regulations set for non-members that want to trade with the member countries (Egger, 2004). The purpose of the trading blocs’ formation is to help eliminate trade barriers as well as help improve coordination and cooperation among member countries in terms of international trade. The different types include Free Trade Areas, Common Market, Customs Union, Economic Union and Political Union (Krishna, 2005). Article Summary             The article â€Å"From the Outside Looking In: The Effect of Trading Blocs on Trade Disputes in the GATT/WTO†, written by Haftel, Y. Z. (2004) is a journal that discusses the effect of trading blocs on resolution of trade disputes between member countries. There have been major expansion and increase in the number of trading blocs in international trade, which have become part of the economies across the world (Haftel, 2004). Trading blocs have negative effects on third parties whereby there is multilateral trade taking place between countries and non-member countries. Non-member countries are often affected negatively as a result of the trading blocs as compared to the way the member countries are affected. The non-member states often tend to take political action against the trading blocs, which in turn results in to negative effects and fails to assist in the resolution of trade disputes (Haftel, 2004). From this article, the author notes that WTO (World Trade Organization) has become one of the major organizations that help in enhancing international or multilateral trade between countries across the world. The WTO has a system through which disputes can be settled between countries that are in disagreement on trade issues (Haftel, 2004). Furthermore, the author notes that there has been a lot of concentration by scholars on the effects that trading blocs have on the members and on the other hand they have paid very little, if any, attention to the effects that those trading blocs have on third parties or the non-member states. Trading blocs affect the prices of products from non-member states whereby the member states enjoy better prices for their produce as compared to the non-members, despite producing similar products (Haftel, 2004). The third parties often suffer since the members of the trading blocs change trade the products of the member countries, which in some cases are often cheap (Haftel, 2004). This in turn affects their production since the market share that their products command is overtaken by the trading blocs’ members. Formation of trading blocs has been part of international trade and nearly every country across the world has engaged in trading blocs (Haftel, 2004). However, despite the fact that trading blocs attract a lot of attention, scholars as well as policymakers have failed to fully define and appreciate the fact that these trading blocs have negative impacts on third parties and other multilateral institutions. Non-Member states often feel short-changed hence resulting in a lot of disputes brought by the non-member states (Haftel, 2004). Discussion             The primary reason that brought about the formation of trading blocs by countries across the world was to help improve on international trade between members by eliminating trade barriers (Macho-Stadler, & Xue, 2007). The members of a trading bloc enjoy several benefits which include free movement of goods and services between member states, reduction of trade tariffs on their products, and improvement of economic standards of the member countries. Furthermore, trading blocs also help in the improvement of cooperation and collaboration between member states hence political and economic stability in the member states (Krishna, 2005). Furthermore, trading blocs helps improve on competition, increase in productivity as well as affordability in price of products. In addition, it has also been seen that trading blocs helps in creation of employment in the member countries as a result of the increase in trade within the region hence better living standards for the citiz ens of the member countries. However, as noted by Haftel, (2004), trading bloc benefits the members while on the other hand, causes a lot of negative economic impacts on the non-member states. The formation of trading blocs often endangers firms that are less efficient in the non-member states since they lack the market for their products (Haftel, 2004). There is also the danger of over-exploitation of the countries that are less efficient by countries that are efficient, hence causing an increase the wealth-gap whereby the advanced countries continue to become richer while countries that are less developed become poorer. Therefore, it is important to strike a balance on how member states and the non-member countries can continue to trade (Egger, 2004). Despite trading blocs being important in international trade, disputes will continue to arise from the non-member countries since there is no uniformity in trade regulations. References Chase, K. A. (2005). Trading blocs: States, firms, and regions in the world economy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Egger, P. (2004). Estimating Regional Trading Bloc Effects with Panel Data. Review Of World Economics, 140(1), 151-166. Haftel, Y. Z. (2004). From the Outside Looking In: The Effect of Trading Blocs on Trade Disputes in the GATT/WTO. International Studies Quarterly, 48(1), 121-142. doi:10.1111/j.0020-8833.2004.00294.x Krishna, P. (2005). Trade blocs: Economics and politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Macho-Stadler, I., & Xue, L. (2007). Winners and Losers from the Gradual Formation of Trading Blocs. Economica, 74(296), 664-681. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0335.2007.00589.x Source document